Master Degree in Electronic Engineering - 2nd year
1st semester, academic year 2023/24

Prof. Roberto Macaluso

 Lesson Plan

Course description
The course provides, together with the state of the art CMOS technology, currently dominating the market of integrated circuits, and the issues related to the scaling of these devices, specific knowledge on physics and technology of novel materials such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, as potential building blocks for realizing a new generation of dense, fast, and low power consuming integrated circuits.
The course will cover also advanced fabrication and characterisation techniques of nanostructures and nanoelectronics devices. In order to put into practice theory, concepts and design methodologies taught in the course, both numerical exercises and laboratory sessions are provided. The latter will be focused mainly on the fabrication of nanostructures by electrochemical-based techniques and their characterization through scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffractometry, and Raman spectroscopy.
With this knowledge, attending students will be able to compete with colleagues from other universities in a rapidly growing and extremely strategic field for all advanced economies. Nanoelectronics, in fact, embraces a wide range of applications ranging from those typical of the semiconductor industry (microprocessors, memory, electronic circuits with low power consumption for mobile phones, laptops, and other portable electronic devices) to biological, medical, and environmental applications (e.g. biological material detectors, implantable biosensors for chronic diseases, gas nanosensors, etc).

Physics, Electronic devices.

1. Introduction. Toward the nanoscale
- From micro to nano-science and from micro to nano-technology: historical perspective.
- The Moore’s law.
- Evolution of CMOS devices technology: from micro to nano-electronics.

2. Scaling of MOSFET devices and its physical limits
- The International roadmap for semiconductors (ITRS): technological trends.
- Scaling-down of MOSFET devices: constant field scaling, constant voltage scaling, quasi-constant voltage scaling, empirical scaling.
- Short-channel effects: threshold voltage roll-off, subthreshold current effects, gate leakage, mobility degradation, velocity saturation, hot electrons effects.
- Narrow gate width effects: voltage threshold roll-up.
- Drain current in short-channel MOSFETs: comparison with long-channel MOSFETs.
- Speed in short-channel MOSFETs: cut-off frequency.
- Gate oxide: tunnelling leakage currents components, gate depletion, high-k dielectrics and metal gate.
- Gate induced drain leakage (GIDL).
- Reliability of short-channel MOSFETs: hot carrier degradation in both n-MOS and p-MOS, impact ionization, gate-oxide degradation and breakdown, electromigration, junction spiking.
- Techniques to control short-channels effects: light-doped drain technology, shallow junctions, silicide source/drain contacts, raised source/drain, halo implants, retrograde channel profiles.
- Advanced MOSFET structures: ultra-thin body MOSFET, silicon-on-insulator (SOI) physics and technology, double gate MOSFET, bulk and SOI FinFET, Fin replacement with III-V compound semiconductors, strained-silicon technology , Nanowire-FET.
- Scaling of interconnections: Cu/low-k dielectrics, single and dual damascene process.

3. Growth, fabrication, and characterisation techniques for nanostructures and nanodevices
- Fabrication techniques of nanodevices: limits of optical lithography, deep-UV lithography, immersion lithography, extreme-UV lithography, electron beam lithography, ion-beam lithography, soft lithography, nanoimprint lithography (NIL), dip-pen nanolithography, scanning-probe-induced oxidation, focused ion-beam (FIB) for etching, deposition, lithography, and micromachining.
- Characterization techniques of nanomaterials and nanostructures: scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning tunneling microscope (STM), atomic force microscope (AFM), Raman spectroscopy.
- Self-assembly of nanostructures: bottom-up technology approach, Langmuir-Blodget method, electrochemical techniques.

4. Novel materials for nanoelectronics
- Graphene: structure and properties, possible applications in nanoelectronics and photonics, growth techniques, doping and functionalization techniques.
- Carbon nanotubes (CNTs): chirality vs. electrical properties, metallic and semiconducting CNTs, applications in nanoelectronics and photonics, ballistic transport, Landauer formula, growth techniques, doping and functionalization techniques.

5. Carbon nanotubes-based devices
- Back-gated and top-gated CNT-FETs: comparison with Si-MOSFETs
- CNT-based gas sensors.

Course books
- Teaching Material provided by the lecturer
In addition to the material provided by the lecturer (notes, projected slides), the following text books are recommended:
- R. S. Muller, T. I. Kamins: Device electronics for integrated circuits - Wiley, 2003.
- V. Mitin, V. Kochelap, M. Stroscio: Introduction to Nanoelectronics - Cambridge University Press, 2008.
- H.-S. P. Wong, D. Akinwande: Carbon Nanotube and graphene device physics - Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Oral examination.

 Teaching Material

 Class organisation (Scheda di trasparenza)

 Exams calendar

Communications to the students

University of Palermo  -  Department of Energy, Information engineering and Mathematical models (DEIM)
viale delle Scienze, Building 9  -  I-90128  Palermo (Italy)